Anti-Aging and NAD+

USA Sports Medicine Anti Aging and NAD+

NAD and NAD+ occur naturally in the body. They play a major role in the chemical process of generating energy. NAD+ is probably the most important cofactor for improving mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of almost all living cells where micronutrients are converted to energy-rich ATP molecules for the cell.

NAD+ is the second most popular cofactor in the human body. Anti-aging therapies are becoming more mainstream as aging is now being viewed as a disease. Now that this transition is happening, the ability for NAD+ to activate PARPS, Sirtuins, and help with immune dysregulation has been thoroughly investigated and NAD+ and its precursors have been highly popularized (3).

The clinical importance of maintaining cellular NAD+ levels was established early in the last century with the finding that pellagra, a disease characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death, could be cured with foods containing the NAD+ precursor niacin. Additionally, cellular concentrations of NAD+ have been shown to decrease under conditions of increased oxidative damage such as occur during aging (2).

Altered levels of NAD+ have been found to accompany several disorders associated with increased oxidative/free radical damage including diabetes, heart disease, age-related vascular dysfunction, ischemic brain injury, misfolded neuronal proteins, and Alzheimer’s dementia (1,2).

Interventions targeted at restoring NAD+ have been shown in animal models to support healthy aging and improve metabolic function, and dementia as well (5).

Benefits of NAD

  • Helps repair blood vessels
  • May improve muscle health
  • May help repair cells and DNA
  • May improve cognitive function
  • May help with age-related weight gain

Articles Cited:

  1. Massudi H, Grant R, Braidy N, Guest J, Farnsworth B, Guillemin GJ. Age-associated changes in oxidative stress and NAD+ metabolism in human tissue. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42357. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042357. Epub 2012 Jul 27. PMID: 22848760; PMCID: PMC3407129.
  2. Yahyah Aman, Yumin Qiu, Jun Tao, Evandro F. Fang.  Therapeutic potential of boosting NAD+ in aging and age-related diseases, Translational Medicine of Aging, Volume 2, 2018, Pages 30-37.
  3. Imai, Shin-ichiro, and Leonard Guarente. “NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease.” Trends in cell biology 24.8 (2014): 464-471.
  4. Mach, John, et al. “The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Fatigue during Exercise: Potential Role for NAD+ (H).” Nutrients 2.3 (2010): 319-329.
  5. Verdin, Eric. “NAD+ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration.” Science 350.6265 (2015): 1208-1213.

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Citations

  • Studies Cited:
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  • 2.Prodromos, Chadwick & Finkle, Susan. (2020). Autologous Biologic Treatment with Fat, Bone Marrow Aspirate and Platelet Rich Plasma Is an Effective Alternative to Total Knee Arthroplasty for Patients with Moderate Knee Arthrosis. Medicines. 7. 37. 10.3390/medicines7060037.
  • 3. Y.S. Kim, Y.J. Choi, S.W. Lee, O.R. Kwon, D.S. Suh, D.B. Heo, Y.G. Koh. Assessment of clinical and MRI outcomes after mesenchymal stem cell implantation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a prospective study, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Volume 24, Issue 2, 2016, Pages 237-245, ISSN 1063-4584, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2015.08.009.
  • 4. Vangsness CT Jr, Farr J 2nd, Boyd J, Dellaero DT, Mills CR, LeRoux-Williams M. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells delivered via intra-articular injection to the knee following partial medial meniscectomy: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Jan 15;96(2):90-8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.M.00058. PMID: 24430407.
  • 5. Hernigou P, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, Zilber S, Duffiet P, Chevallier N, Rouard H. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. Int Orthop. 2014 Sep;38(9):1811-8. doi: 10.1007/s00264-014-2391-1. Epub 2014 Jun 7. PMID: 24913770.
  • 6. Centeno C, Fausel Z, Stemper I, Azuike U, Dodson E. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears with Bone Marrow Concentrate and Platelet Products Compared to Exercise Therapy: A Midterm Analysis. Stem Cells Int. 2020;2020:5962354. Published 2020 Jan 30. doi:10.1155/2020/5962354
  • 7. Centeno CJ, Pitts JA, Al-Sayegh H, Freeman MD (2014) Efficacy and Safety of Bone Marrow Concentrate for Osteoarthritisof the Hip; Treatment Registry Results for 196 Patients. J Stem Cell Res Ther 4: 242. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.1000242
  • 8. Darrow M, Shaw B, Darrow B, Wisz S. Short-Term Outcomes of Treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis With 4 Bone Marrow Concentrate Injections: A Case Series. Clin Med Insights Case Rep. 2018;11:1179547618791574. Published 2018 Aug 10. doi:10.1177/1179547618791574
  • 9. Centeno CJ, Al-Sayegh H, Bashir J, Goodyear S, Freeman MD. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis. J Pain Res. 2015;8:269-276. Published 2015 Jun 5. doi:10.2147/JPR.S80872
  • 10. Singh A, Gangwar DS, Singh S. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2014;5(2):389-391. doi:10.4103/0976-9668.136198
  • 11. Lin, Junhong. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Munich Vol. 56, Iss. 8, (Aug 2018): 366.
  • 12. Kothari SY, Srikumar V, Singh N. Comparative Efficacy of Platelet Rich Plasma Injection, Corticosteroid Injection and Ultrasonic Therapy in the Treatment of Periarthritis Shoulder. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(5):RC15-RC18. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/17060.9895
  • 13. Peerbooms JC, (2010) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-Year follow-up. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448192
  • 14. Gosens T, et al. (2011) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422467
  • 15. Mishra A, et al. (2014) Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for chronic tennis elbow: a double-blind, prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of 230 patients. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23825183
  • 16. Sanchez M, et al. (2007) Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet rich fibrin matrices. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17099241
  • 17. Dragoo JL, Wasterlain AS, Braun HJ, Nead KT. Platelet-Rich Plasma as a Treatment for Patellar Tendinopathy: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;42(3):610-618. doi:10.1177/0363546513518416
  • 18. Akşahin, Ertuğrul, et al. “The comparison of the effect of corticosteroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.” Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery 132.6 (2012): 781-785.
  • 19. Ragab, Ehab Mohamed Selem, and Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Othman. “Platelets rich plasma for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.” Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery 132.8 (2012): 1065-1070.
  • 20. Doaa H. Ibrahim, Nagat M. El-Gazzar, Hanan M. El-Saadany, Radwa M. El-Khouly, Ultrasound-guided injection of platelet rich plasma versus corticosteroid for treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: Effect on shoulder pain, disability, range of motion and ultrasonographic findings. The Egyptian Rheumatologist, Volume 41, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 157-161, ISSN 1110-1164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejr.2018.06.004.
  • 21. Dadgostar, H., Fahimipour, F., Pahlevan Sabagh, A. et al. Corticosteroids or platelet-rich plasma injections for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized clinical trial study. J Orthop Surg Res 16, 333 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02470-x
  • 22. Begkas D, Chatzopoulos ST, Touzopoulos P, Balanika A, Pastroudis A. Ultrasound-guided Platelet-rich Plasma Application Versus Corticosteroid Injections for the Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Prospective Controlled Randomized Comparative Clinical Study. Cureus. 2020;12(1):e6583. Published 2020 Jan 7. doi:10.7759/cureus.6583
  • 23. ROSÁRIO, DAVI ARAÚJO VEIGA et al. COMPARISON BETWEEN CONCENTRATED BONE MARROW ASPIRATE AND CORTICOID IN GLUTEAL TENDINOPATHY. Acta Ortopédica Brasileira [online]. 2021, v. 29, n. 1 [Accessed 1 December 2021] , pp. 26-29. Available from: <https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-785220212901236828>. Epub 10 Mar 2021. ISSN 1809-4406. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-785220212901236828.
  • 24. Tang, J.Z., Nie, M.J., Zhao, J.Z. et al. Platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis. J Orthop Surg Res 15, 403 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01919-9